World J Surg Surg Res | Volume 3, Issue 1 | Review Article | Open Access

The Effects of Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes on Bone Metabolism

Cameron Moon and Jiayong Liu*

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, USA

*Correspondance to: Jiayong Liu 

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There is an accumulation of evidence determining an increased risk of fracture in Type 1 Diabetes
(T1D) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). T1D is associated with a low Bone Mineral Density (BMD)
determining the decreased bone strength and quality. T2D, paradoxically, presents with a high
BMD and increased fracture risk. This formulates the suggestion that both types of diabetes effect
bone in their own distinct ways involving issues in underlying bone pathological mechanisms. A
decreased Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) in T1D causes a disparity between bone formation
and resorption. T2D presents an increased Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) leading to
impaired crosslinking of type 1 collagen and weakening the structural composition of bone. The
negative effect of bone by T1D and T2D cannot be defined by one simple mechanism, but by a
combination of multiple biological factors. Future research needs to be conducted to discover the
chief mechanisms of increased fractures in T1D and T2D, so that preventative measures can be
taken to decrease the chance of osteoporotic fractures in diabetic patients.



Moon C, Liu J. The Effects of Type 1 vs. Type 2 Diabetes on Bone Metabolism. World J Surg Surgical Res. 2020; 3:1258..

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